lee 1476 0 2017-09-21 23:34:40

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Linux系统分区Linux系统挂载硬盘Linux系统Linux系统增加交换分区swap

1.分区介绍

 Linux系统分区不同于windows,Linux下[IED]硬盘名称为hd?(?为a-d)因为IED硬盘最多4个分区;SCSI,SATA,USB硬盘名称为sd?(?a-z),硬盘主分区最多为4个,逻辑分区从sdb5开始.

2.查看系统分区

 命令:

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l
 
Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000706e3
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39         557     4161536   82  Linux swap / Solaris
Partition 2 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda3             557        2611    16501760   83  Linux
 
Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
 
[root@localhost ~]#

从上面我们可以看出有两块硬盘 分别为 sda sdb
 第一块硬盘sda是装系统时候用的硬盘;
 另外一块sdb则是我们今天将要分区的硬盘
3.分区方法

①进入第二块磁盘分区

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0xe182f37e.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.
 
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
 
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').
 
Command (m for help):

②输入m获取帮助信息

Command (m for help): m 
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)
 
Command (m for help):

③输入p查看当前分区表

Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xe182f37e
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
 
Command (m for help):

④创建主分区sdb1大小为2G

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1305, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-1305, default 1305): +2G        
 
Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xe182f37e
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1         262     2104483+  83  Linux
 
Command (m for help):

⑤格式化分区sdb1为linux文件类型

Command (m for help): t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list codes): L
 
 0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris       
 1  FAT12           39  Plan 9          82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 2  XENIX root      3c  PartitionMagic  83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 3  XENIX usr       40  Venix 80286     84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 4  FAT16 <32M      41  PPC PReP Boot   85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx        
 5  Extended        42  SFS             86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data   
 6  FAT16           4d  QNX4.x          87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 7  HPFS/NTFS       4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility  
 8  AIX             4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt        
 9  AIX bootable    50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access    
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O       
 b  W95 FAT32       52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor     
 c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs       
 e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT           
 f  W95 Ext'd (LBA) 55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor     
12  Compaq diagnost 61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor     
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary 
16  Hidden FAT16    64  Novell Netware  af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS   
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 65  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE
18  AST SmartSleep  70  DiskSecure Mult b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep       
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 80  Old Minix       be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT           
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 83
 
Command (m for help)

:⑥创建主分区sdb2大小为6G

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 2
First cylinder (263-1305, default 263):
Using default value 263
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (263-1305, default 1305): +6G
 
Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xe182f37e
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1         262     2104483+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2             263        1046     6297480   83  Linux
 
Command (m for help):

⑦格式化分区sdb2为FAT32

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 2
Hex code (type L to list codes): L
 
 0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris       
 1  FAT12           39  Plan 9          82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 2  XENIX root      3c  PartitionMagic  83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 3  XENIX usr       40  Venix 80286     84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 4  FAT16 <32M      41  PPC PReP Boot   85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx        
 5  Extended        42  SFS             86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data   
 6  FAT16           4d  QNX4.x          87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 7  HPFS/NTFS       4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility  
 8  AIX             4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt        
 9  AIX bootable    50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access    
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O       
 b  W95 FAT32       52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor     
 c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs       
 e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT           
 f  W95 Ext'd (LBA) 55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor     
12  Compaq diagnost 61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor     
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary 
16  Hidden FAT16    64  Novell Netware  af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS   
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 65  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE
18  AST SmartSleep  70  DiskSecure Mult b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep       
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 80  Old Minix       be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT           
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1
Hex code (type L to list codes): b     
Changed system type of partition 2 to b (W95 FAT32)
 
Command (m for help):
 

⑧创建主分区sdb3大小剩余的全部

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 3
First cylinder (1047-1305, default 1047):
Using default value 1047
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1047-1305, default 1305):
Using default value 1305
 
Command (m for help):

⑨格式化为swap格式

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 3
Hex code (type L to list codes): L
 
 0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris       
 1  FAT12           39  Plan 9          82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 2  XENIX root      3c  PartitionMagic  83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 3  XENIX usr       40  Venix 80286     84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 4  FAT16 <32M      41  PPC PReP Boot   85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx        
 5  Extended        42  SFS             86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data   
 6  FAT16           4d  QNX4.x          87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 7  HPFS/NTFS       4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility  
 8  AIX             4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt        
 9  AIX bootable    50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access    
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O       
 b  W95 FAT32       52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor     
 c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs       
 e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT           
 f  W95 Ext'd (LBA) 55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor     
12  Compaq diagnost 61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor     
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary 
16  Hidden FAT16    64  Novell Netware  af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS   
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 65  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE
18  AST SmartSleep  70  DiskSecure Mult b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep       
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 80  Old Minix       be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT           
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 82
Changed system type of partition 3 to 82 (Linux swap / Solaris)
 
Command (m for help):


到目前为止,我们只是对分区表进行了内存中编辑。我们可以用 q 命令退出,不保存更改。如果某些分区不能满足您的要求,您可以使用 d 命令来删除一个或多个分区,以便重新定义它们。如果您对设置满意,则可以使用 v 命令来验证您的设置,然后使用 w 命令来写入新的分区表并退出

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
 
WARNING: If you have created or modified any DOS 6.x
partitions, please see the fdisk manual page for additional
information.
Syncing disks.

4.格式化分区/dev/sdb1为ext3文件类型

[root@MiWiFi-R1CM ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
131648 inodes, 526120 blocks
26306 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=541065216
17 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
7744 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
    32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912
 
Writing inode tables: done                           
Creating journal (16384 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
 
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 22 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[root@localhost ~]#

如果需要ext4类型则执行命令
 

[root@MiWiFi-R1CM ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1

大硬盘快速格式化命令

[root@MiWiFi-R1CM ~]# mkfs.ext3  -T largefile /dev/sdb1


5.挂载分区/dev/sdb1到/home

[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /home/data
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3              16G  6.6G  8.2G  45% /
tmpfs                 947M  276K  947M   1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             291M   34M  242M  13% /boot
/dev/sdb1             2.0G   68M  1.9G   4% /home/data
 
 
 如果报错mount: you must specify the filesystem type则需要格式化一下分区
 mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1或
 mksf.ext3 /dev/sdb1

5.1将硬盘挂载配置到系统分区配置文件/etc/fstab中
将硬盘挂载配置到系统分区配置文件/etc/fstab中,便于下次重启能自动挂载

编辑/etc/fstab 文件
添加:/dev/sdb1 /home/data ext3 defaults 1 1 



6.将swap分区应用到系统中/取消分区

[root@localhost ~]# free
          total      used      free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:       1939084     502680    1436404        0     35616     279680
-/+ buffers/cache:187384       1751700
Swap:      4161528        0    4161528
[root@localhost ~]# mkswap -L SDBSWAP /dev/sdb3
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 2080412 KiB
LABEL=SDBSWAP, UUID=b2d1bfd4-db4a-4524-a9ca-6f8c1462ba2b
[root@localhost ~]# swapon /dev/sdb3
[root@localhost ~]# free
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:       1939084     504548    1434536          0      36424     279740
-/+ buffers/cache:     188384    1750700
Swap:      6241936          0    6241936
[root@localhost ~]# swapoff /dev/sdb3
[root@localhost ~]# free
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:       1939084     503564    1435520          0      36484     279740
-/+ buffers/cache:     187340    1751744
Swap:      4161528          0    4161528
[root@localhost ~]#